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Gender Inequality in Egypt

Written By: Islam Yusri

64% of men admit to harassing women in Egypt's streets: report - Egypt  Independent

Regarding gender equality, Egypt had been receiving a very low ranking, compared to the different countries around the world. According to the Global Gender Gap Index for the year of 2015, which had been Developed for the measurement of the disparities among men and women Within different countries, Egypt had been receiving the positioning of 136th, when compared to 145 states, internationally. This can be highlighting the problem of the massive inequality among the genders within the Egyptian society. This problem can be perceived as one of the most threatening issues that can be negatively affecting the performance of the individuals within the society, based on the lack of just treatment. In other words, women can be less motivated to perform in different fields and pursue any achievements, if there had been a perception that their achievements will not be appreciated or rewarded equal to the men contribution or achievements (USAID , 2020).

It can be witnessed that the progress within the gender equality promotion had been increasing, lately, in terms of the enhancement of the number of seats earned by women to be reaching 87 seats within the Egyptian Congress or parliament, while there had been an announcement by the Egyptian constitution to Set a 25% quota for the Egyptian women within the local councils. However, this progress had been only witnessed within the contribution of the women within the political life (UNDP, 2020). The problem of gender inequality should be highly focused on by the entire institutions in the state, for the purpose of the enhancement of the progress and the development of the Egyptian economic, social, and industrial aspects.

One of the most important solutions that have been introduced for the purpose of the enhancement of the women empowerment had been based upon the introduction of various regulations and rules, through which women would be able to defend their rights and receive an equal treatment, much like the man. This solution had been focusing upon the provision of women rights in terms of social affairs, marriage affairs, and throughout the management of the relationship between the women and the men in their families. For instance, the problem within this solution can be recognized as a result of the massive focus upon the financial issues in Inheritance, marriage and divorce, mothers’ custody, Protection of women from domestic violence, and early marriage problems. however, all of those regulations have been assuring that the women will not be negatively affected by the poor treatment practiced by their parents, husband, or bosses in the world. There had been very limited orientation towards the empowerment of women or towards the enhancement of the equality between men and women within the different social interactions, as well as the opportunities in the Labor market (IBRD & World Bank, 2018). There should be how your concern for the reformulation of the ideologies and the perception of the Egyptian society to board the women role within the national development and the importance of their contribution in the country.

Another solution had been proposed by the UNFPA, which had been based on the Intervention within the Egyptian society for the purpose of the furthering of the women empowerment and the gender equality issues. However, the main focus of the intervention had been based upon the protection and prevention of the entire types of gender-based violence, against women or young girls. This had been conducted throughout the highlighting of the different physical, emotional, and medical impacts that can be witnessed by the victim women. For the elimination of gender-based violence, the initiative had been focusing upon the enhancement of the ability of the various governmental institutions , as well as the non-governmental organizations, for the prevention and the responding to those types of violence, while ensuring that there would be highly defined penalties against the wrongdoers (UNFPA, 2020). However, the shortcoming of this solution can be stated as based on the fact that the initiative had been highly focusing upon this sexual and the violent behavior against women, which cannot be recognized as enough for the empowerment of women. In other words, the limitation of the negative or dangerous consequences that can be witnessed by the victims of the Gender-based violence is recognized to be essential for the enhancement of the just and the order within the society , but it will not be a motivator for the women to develop their capabilities and focusing upon the enhancement of their achievements.

The most effective solution for this problem is recognized as a result of the reformulation of the mindset of the Egyptians in different governorates and different age groups, as well as throughout various social groups and categories. In other words, the government should be focusing upon the development of different communication strategies that would be focusing upon the enhancing the role of women within the minds of Egyptian society, as well as the enhancement of their positioning, for the purpose of the highlighting of the important role that can be contributed by the women within the sustainable development and the progress within the Egyptian social and economic growth. This solution can be effective, because it will be contributing within the development of the Egyptian Mindset and the reformulation of the negative views and values that had been adopted by the Egyptians, as well as assuring that the decisions that would be conducted among the Egyptian families, workplace, and different social and economic institutions, involving women, would be based on the highest rates of gender equality. As the decision making process adopted by the Egyptians, regarding the favoring of the men over women, in terms of education, available jobs, distribution of income and wealth, and other issues, can be a result of the inferior image or values that have been provided to the women by the majority of members of the society (Ruta, 2012).

This solution may be refuted based on the have potential for the Egyptians to refuse this solution or not to reformulate their perceptions and perspectives, regarding women, easily. However, it should be highlighted that this solution would be based on different aspects. The first aspect would be highlighting the women as a decision maker or one of the main factors that would be defining the destiny of this country, throughout the involvement of the women within the different decision making processes and the media positions in the government, social institutions, and economic organizations. The second aspect would be based upon the enhancement of The contribution of the different media and communication strategies that would be deployed , with the help of social media influencers, celebrities, and opinion leaders within the Egyptian community, for the purpose of the involvement of the women with  different skills and competence is that would be allowing them to in get involved within the labor market and override the man in the opportunities (Domingo, Plank, & O’Neil, 2015).

the development of different rules and regulations can be effective for the purpose of the enhancement of the women contribution within the political positions. For instance, one of the changes that will be taking place would be the enhancement of the quota of the women within the parliament or the Egyptian Congress to be more than 25%, while the percentage would be highlighted based upon the actual percentage of the women within the Egyptian society. In other words, The Egyptian Parliament would be changing the Women quota within the parliament every year, which would be based upon the demographic and the statistical analysis of that Egyptian society and evaluating of the women percentage, when compared to the entire society (UNDP, 2020).

To conclude, it can be stated that the enhancement of the contribution of the women within the leadership positions and providing them with the training and the competence required for the decision-making processes can be effective for the maximization of the national development on different aspects , such as economic, social, environmental, and technological aspects. For instance, women in Egypt in the year of 2019  had been recognized to be representing 47 .5 million individual, while men had been Recognized be 50.5 million individuals (MENA;, 2019). This means that the women can be reviewed as more than 50% of the entire society, who have been only represented by 25% of the parliament. From my perspective, this is a massive problem within the Egyptian regulations, as the regulator had been identifying 25% of the parliament seats to be occupied by the women, who are representing 50% of the nation. It can be stated that the gender inequality in Egypt had been starting from the regulations itself, when there would be a modification within the regulations, there would be modification within the mindset of the Egyptians, considering them to be effective within the leadership positions in this country. However, the entire effort should be starting from the reevaluating and the reformulating of the mindset of the Egyptians within the young ages, specially within the education and social institutions.

Bibliography

Domingo, P., Plank, G., & O’Neil, T. (2015). Support to women and girls’ leadership: A rapid review of the evidence. ODI. Retrieved from https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9623.pdf

IBRD, & World Bank. (2018). Women Economic Empowerment Study. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved from http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/861491551113547855/pdf/134846-WP-PUBLIC-march-2-WB-Women-Study-EN.pdf

MENA;. (2019). 47.5 million of Egypt’s population are females: CAPMAS. MENA. Retrieved from http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/0/327816/Egypt/0/-million-of-Egypts-population-are-females-CAPMAS.aspx

Ruta, C. (2012). Gender politics in transition Women’s Political Rights in Egypt after the January 25 revolution. The American University in Cairo. Retrieved from http://dar.aucegypt.edu/bitstream/handle/10526/2921/gender%20politics%20in%20transition.%20women%27s%20political%20rights%20in%20Egypt%20after%20the%20January%2025%20revolution.pdf?sequence=3

UNDP. (2020). Gender equality. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved from https://www.eg.undp.org/content/egypt/en/home/ourwork/gender-equality/overview.html

UNFPA. (2020). Gender-based violence. UNFPA. Retrieved from https://egypt.unfpa.org/en/node/22540

USAID . (2020). GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT. USAID. Retrieved from https://www.usaid.gov/egypt/gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment

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